Oct 19 2013

Curry College campus officer fired after home invasion arrest

Dr. Q

The Patriot Ledger reports:

A Marshfield man being held without bail on home invasion and gun charges for allegedly entering the home of a woman he knows and pointing a police baton and a handgun at her has been fired from his job as a public safety officer at Curry College.

In a statement issued Wednesday, Frances L. Jackson, director of communication at the Milton college, confirmed that Paul Kodzis, 26, of 54 Primrose Lane had been fired.

“The matter remains under investigation with external law enforcement agencies, and the college is grateful for their service,’’ Jackson said.

Kodzis was arraigned Tuesday in Plymouth District Court on charges of assault with a dangerous weapon, home invasion with a firearm, domestic assault, improper storage of a large-capacity firearm, armed burglary and witness intimidation.

Kodzis’ bail may be reconsidered following a dangerousness hearing scheduled for Friday.

Marshfield police arrested Kodzis on Monday night after a woman went to the police station to report that she had awakened at about 1 a.m. Monday to find a man, later identified as Kodzis, pointing a police baton and handgun at her and yelling, Marshfield police Lt. Paul Taber said. Taber said the woman, who lives in Marshfield, knows Kodzis “from the past.”

The woman told police she ran into the room of one of her roommates, and Kodzis followed her. The roommates were then able to talk Kodzis into handing over the gun, Taber said.

The witnesses told police they left the gun in the bathroom while the victim called Kodzis’ parents, who “picked him up and took control of the gun and the police baton that he had brought with him,” Taber said.

Police found two loaded, unsecured handguns in the attic of Kodzis’ home, Taber said.

Police have since suspended Kodzis’ license to carry firearms.


Jun 13 2013

Assumption College campus officer shoots self in foot

Dr. Q

An Assumption College campus police officer negligently discharged his firearm at a firing range, shooting himself in the foot (Source: Telegram & Gazette).

Details here:

Deputy Chief Keith S. Hough, 55, received a bullet wound to his right foot when his handgun went off as he was placing it in his holster, according to District Attorney Joseph D. Early Jr.’s office, which investigated the 8 a.m. shooting.

The deputy chief was taken to UMass Memorial Medical Center — University Campus, where his condition was listed as good.

The shooting occurred inside a mobile firing range parked in front of the old fire station on Main Street, according to Police Chief George Sherrill.

“It appears to be accidental,” Chief Sherrill said. “State police are investigating whether the bullet ricocheted, was a stray bullet or a misfire.”

For the record, I treat all “accidental” shootings by police officers as cases of negligence for the purposes of my police misconduct database. Guns do not simply fire themselves; guns fire because someone pulls the trigger. For this reason, I add all “accidental” shootings to the database even if they are not labeled negligent by police or prosecutors.


Jan 25 2012

Report describes investigation of abusive UMass Lowell officer

Dr. Q

In October of last year, UMass Lowell student Brendan Brown was threatened by a campus police officer for video-recording a group of police officers who were responding to a fight that had taken place outside an apartment. Brown was approached by UMass Lowell Police Officer Noberto Melendez who told him to “Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you.” Brown decided he’d rather not be arrested, so he left the area, but he did upload his video to YouTube and later shared it on my Facebook wall.

After I saw the video, I brought it to the attention of Police Chief Randolph Brashears. Chief Brashears subsequently launched an investigation which resulted allegations of misconduct being sustained against Officer Melendez. As you may remember, I was able to get the University to agree to disclose their investigation report by making a public records request, however, the University told me I needed to pay a $235 fee to have a copy made. Luckily, some generous Cop Block readers donated the money.

After I sent in the money to the University, they engaged in a long and unlawful delay before sending the documents out to me. On January 6, about 3 weeks after the University received my payment, I still had not received the report, so I called to complain. I contacted Jack Giarusso, the head of Human Resources at UMass Lowell, and asked him why it was taking so long for the documents to be mailed to me. He told me that he was just about to send them out. I pointed out to him that he was violating the law because the Massachusetts Public Records Law requires that records custodians comply with requests within 10 days without any unreasonable delays and it had already been more than a month. Giarusso gave me an excuse about how he hadn’t been able to mail the records on time because he had to move to a different office, but I told him that the Public Records Law does not mention this as a legitimate reason for taking so long to comply with a request.

I finally received a copy of the investigation about a week later. Unfortunately, I’ve been having problems with my scanner, so I wasn’t able to scan the report until several days ago when I found time to go to the local public library. You can find a copy of the report at the bottom of this post.

I don’t want to discuss everything about the report in detail. After all, you can read the entire thing yourself. But there are a few aspects of the report that I wanted to draw some attention to.

One of the first sections of the report describes how Chief Brashears interviewed Officer Noberto Melendez, the police officer who threatened Brendan Brown. Chief Brashears describes how he called Officer Melendez to his office and advised him that he could have a union representative there to officer guidance. Melendez returned with an Officer Soucey. According to the report:

Officer Soucy asked if there were any criminal charges being considered against Officer Melendez and if so would “Garrity Rights” be used. I advised both of them that there criminal charges are not being considered in this incident but to ease their concern I advised that nothing said during this process could be used against Officer Melendez in any criminal proceedings.

So, we learn here that criminal charges were never considered against Officer Melendez. It didn’t matter that Officer Melendez threatened to physically assault Brendan Brown. It didn’t matter that he deprived Brown of his constitutional right to observe and record police activity. Criminal charges were just never even on the table. But what do you expect when cops are “investigated” by other cops?

Next, Chief Brashears informed Melendez that he watched Brown’s YouTube video and asked him to describe what happened that night from his own perspective. Officer Melendez told Brashears that he was responding to a call from other officers. When he arrived at the scene, he witnessed a large crowd.

Officer Melendez states that when he got out of his cruiser he immediately tried to move the crowds by giving commands to leave the area. Officer Melendez stated that he could hear the sirens of the Lowell police department’s cruisers that were responding to this incident.

Officer Melendez stated that it was at this point that “I became very frustrated” because of the lack of response from the crowd. I observed the subject videotaping the event; he was standing on the sidewalk. I went over to him and stated, “Turn that fucking thing off before I slap you”, he further states that “I never had any intention to strike the person but was only trying to get this persons attention; I then immediately went over to another crowd down the street to disperse them”.

The above quote is where Melendez offers a ridiculous explanation for his thuggish behavior. Melended was just trying to get Brown’s attention, so he threatened to assault him? Huh? Usually when I’m trying to get a stranger’s attention, I opt for an “excuse me, sir” or something along those lines. If the roles were reversed — if Brown had threatened to assault Melendez — would he buy the “I was just trying to get his attention” excuse?

And if Officer Melendez was trying to get Brown’s attention, why did he walk away “immediately” (his own word choice) after threatening him without saying anything else? What was he trying to get Brown’s attention for? Apparently nothing.

Let’s read on:

Officer Melendez stated that he regrets saying what he said to the student and knows that some type of discipline will result from this incident. He further said that this is not at all like him, that he always treats the students and public with respect. Officer Melendez further stated that he remembers the Chief either talking about this type of issue or remembers an email from the Chief. Officer Melendez realizes that the public has the right to videotape police activity and that he has no excuse for his behavior, but didn’t remember if this was covered in in-service training.

The above passage is worth taking notice of because it shows that Officer Melendez was already aware that people have the right to video-record the police. There was no confusion about the law on his part. He was not only acting unlawfully, he knew damn well that he was acting unlawfully.

And yet, even though Officer Melendez admitted to knowingly breaking the law, he expects us to believe “this is not at all like him, that he always treats the students and public with respect.” Officer Melendez will have have to forgive me for being skeptical.

At the end of the investigation, Deputy Police Chief Dickerson writes that he sustained all the allegations against Officer Melendez. This means Melendez was found to have used profane and abusive language, engaged in conduct unbecoming of an officer, and violated the civil rights of Brendan Brown.

Unfortunately, we still do not know what punishment Melendez has been subjected to for his behavior. As I explained in an earlier post, the University claims that information is confidential and has refused to disclose it to me. I have exchanged several emails with Deirdre Heatwole, the lawyer who represents the University of Massachusetts system, but I have been unable to convince her to release the information and do not think that I will ever be able to.

In any case, I want to again thank the donors who helped get this report released. I think it’s important that information like this is available to the public and I think it’s a crime that the government makes us jump through so many hoops to get it.

Documents (.pdf format)


Dec 6 2011

UMass Lowell refuses to disclose disciplinary information about campus police

Dr. Q

In October, I wrote about how a UMass Lowell student was threatened by a campus police officer for video-recording him. Brendan Brown was recording the police respond to a fight outside an apartment when he was confronted by a police officer and told to “Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you.”

In case you missed the first post, you can check out the video below:

In early November, I reported that UMass Lowell Police Chief Randolph Brashears wrote to me that the officer in the video, Noberto Melendez, had been disciplined for his behavior. However, Chief Brashears did not say how Officer Melendez was disciplined. Because I did not believe that Chief Brashears was being sufficiently transparent, I filed a public records request with the police department asking for the internal affairs report, information about how Melendez was disciplined, and training and policy information about the campus police.

Later that month, I received a response to my request from Jack Giarusso, the Executive Director of Human Resources at UMass Lowell. In the letter (see the scans here and here; .jpg format), Giarusso said three things.

First, Giarusso agreed to release the internal affairs report, however, he said that I must pay the University a $245 fee for it. This is because, under the Massachusetts Public Records Law, government agencies can require individuals who request records to pay certain fees. The reason the fee is so high in this particular case is that the University must redact certain pieces private information from the report (information about witnesses) and they estimate the process will take about six hours. Personally, I think it’s outrageous that I’m expected to pay hundreds of dollars just to get photocopies of documents which are supposed to be public records, but that’s the way the law currently works.

Unfortunately, I can’t spare the money to get this report released at the moment. However, as an experiment, I decided to create a ChipIn widget. If you believe it’s important that this report is released to the public and are willing to invest money in it, you can pledge part or all of the fee using the Chipin Widget. If all of the money is raised (or at least most of it; I’m willing to use some of my own money), I will use it to obtain a copy of the report, scan it, and post the scans on the internet. If I don’t manage to raise enough money to get the report released within two weeks, all the money that has been raised will be refunded to the donors.

Next, Mr. Guarusso agreed to release the training and policy information. He said the University will provide these documents to me free of charge because there are only a few pages and no redaction is necessary. As soon as I get copies of these documents, I will scan and publish them.

Finally, Giarusso said that the University will not release any disciplinary information about Officer Melendez because he believes that it is exempt from disclosure under the “personnel” exemption to the public records law.

It’s true that there is a “personnel” exemption to the public records law for certain types of information about government employees in Massachusetts, however, I don’t believe that this exemption applies to disciplinary information about police officers. I tried to contact Giarusso by telephone to discuss this with him, but he told me has no understanding of the public records law and simply writes what his lawyers tell him to. He redirected me to Deirde Heatwole, General Counsel for the University of Massachusetts System.

Yesterday, I sent an email to Heatwole explaining why I do not believe the “personnel” exemption applies to police disciplinary information and asking her to release the information:

Deirdre Heatwole,

I recently filed a public records request with the University of Massachusetts Lowell in an attempt to get copies of several records related to an incident involving the campus police which occurred earlier this year. During the incident, UMass Lowell Police Officer Noberto Melendez threatened a student for video-recording him, saying “Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you.” According to UMass Lowell Police Chief Randolph Brashears, this incident resulted in an internal investigation into Officer Melendez’s behavior. Chief Brashears told me that allegations of misconduct were sustained against Officer Melendez and that he was subjected to disciplinary action, however, he would not say what kind of disciplinary action.

Because I was unsatisfied with this response, I sent a public records request to UMass Lowell seeking copies of the internal affairs report, records of the disciplinary action taken against Officer Melendez, and training and policy information. I received a response to this request from Jack Giarusso, Executive Director of Human Resources. Mr. Giarusso agreed to release the internal affairs report and training and policy information, however, he refused to release any disciplinary information about Officer Melendez. When I contacted Mr. Giarusso to discuss his refusal to release this information, he directed me to you.

Mr. Giarusso’s letter claims that “any information regarding any personnel decisions regarding Officer Melendez, including any disciplinary information, is exempt from disclosure under ch. 4, s. 7, cl. 27 (c) as ‘personnel’ information.”

While this statement may reflect the honest opinion of Mr. Giarusso and his legal advisers, it is false. The issue of whether or not disciplinary information about police officers falls under the “personnel” exemption has already been addressed by the judiciary in Massachusetts.

In a case heard by the Appeals Court (Worcester Telegram & Gazette Corporation vs. Chief of Police of Worcester & another. (AC 02-P-1632) 58 Mass. App. Ct. 1 (2003)), the Worcester Police Department refused to comply with a newspaper’s request to release internal affairs information about an officer who had been accused of misconduct by citing the “personnel” exemption. The Court “conclude[d] that materials in an internal affairs investigation are different in kind from the ordinary evaluations, performance assessments and disciplinary determinations encompassed in the public records exemption for ‘personnel [file] or information.'”

The reason the Appeals Court concluded that such information is not exempt “personnel” information is that the internal affairs process “is a formalized citizen complaint procedure, separate and independent from ordinary employment evaluation and assessment” with the primary purpose of “foster[ing] the public’s trust and confidence in the integrity of the police department, its employees, and its processes for investigating complaints because the department has the integrity to discipline itself.” The Court noted that “It would be odd, indeed, to shield from the light of public scrutiny as ‘personnel [file] or information’ the workings and determinations of a process whose quintessential purpose is to inspire public confidence.”

It was mentioned in the letter I received that disciplinary information regarding Officer Melendez “is not part of the internal affairs investigation file,” however, this is irrelevant. As the Appeals Court noted, “the legislative term ‘personnel [file] or information’ derives its meaning from the nature or character of the document, not from its label or its repository.” Even if records of the disciplinary action taken against Officer Melendez were placed in a folder labeled “personnel information” rather than in the internal affairs file, this does not alter the “nature or character” of the information. This disciplinary information is still part of a ” formalized citizen complaint procedure” with the purpose of “foster[ing] the public’s trust and confidence in the integrity of the police department.”

It should be noted that there are certain types of documents containing disciplinary information about police officers that do fall under the “personnel” exemption. In the previously mentioned court case, the Appeals Court refused to release a memo to a police officer informing him that no disciplinary action would be taken against him. However, it is important to note that the Court did so because the memo was an “actual order and notice of disciplinary action issued as a personnel matter,” not simply because the memo contained disciplinary information. Other records containing the same information are available to members of the public who request them.

Because I disagree with Mr. Giarusso’s refusal to disclose disciplinary information about Officer Melendez related to his threat to slap a student for video-recording him, I am asking you to reconsider my request. I request that you provide me with a list of all documents in possession of the University containing this disciplinary information. I also request that you tell me which of these documents you believe to be public records and which you believe are exempt from the public records law.

If you believe that any of these documents are not public records, you are obligated to explain to me why. As Secretary of the Commonwealth William Galvin writes in his publication “A Guide to the Massachusetts Public Records Law,” a “denial [of a public records request] must include a citation to one of the statutory exemptions upon which the records custodian relies, and must explain why the exemption applies” (emphasis added). Galvin also writes that “If a records custodian claims an exemption and withholds a record, the records custodian has the burden of showing how the exemption applies to the record and why it should be withheld” (emphasis added). In other words, it is not enough to simply claim, as Mr. Giarusso did in his letter, that disciplinary information about UMass police officers is exempt “personnel” information. If the University wishes to withhold this information, a representative of the University must articulate specific facts about the records in question in order to explain how the exemption applies.

Please be aware that failure to appropriately respond to this letter in a timely manner will result in an appeal being filed with the Supervisor of Records and possibly other action.

I appreciate you taking time to read over and consider this letter. I look forward to hearing back from you soon.

When I get a response to the email, I’ll post an update.

Stay safe out there, cop blockers.


Nov 9 2011

Chief says officer was disciplined, but doesn’t say how

Dr. Q

In October, I wrote about how a UMass Lowell student was threatened by a campus police officer for video-recording him. Brendan Brown was recording the police respond to a fight outside an apartment when he was confronted by a police officer and told to “Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you.”

In case you missed the first post, you can check out the video below:

In my first article about the incident, I reported that UMass Lowell Police Chief Randolph Brashears was investigating the incident and said that he would tell me about the results of the investigation once it was complete.

Yesterday, I finally received a (snail mail) letter from Chief Brashears. Here’s what the letter said (click here for scan in .jpeg format):

I want to thank you again for being the first to bring the matter of the Youtube video to my attention. Officer Noberto Melendez was investigated for his comments to the student on October 8th that was captured on camera. The subsequent allegations against the officer were sustained and he will be disciplined in accordance with University policy and the Teamsters union.

This unfortunate event has given us the opportunity to retrain our entire department concerning recent court decisions that allow citizens to film police and victims of crime who are interacting with the police.

Thanks again for contacting our agency.

I was glad to read certain parts of this letter. It’s good that Chief Brashears has voluntarily released the name of the officer who threatened the student. It’s also good to hear that he sustained the complaint against the officer.

But it’s not enough for Chief Brashears to simply claim that the officer will be disciplined without providing any details. Unless he is transparent enough to say how the officer will be disciplined, there’s no reason for us to believe that he has actually done anything. Even if the officer is disciplined, we can’t gauge whether the discipline was appropriate unless we know how he was disciplined.

Since I believe that Chief Brashears hasn’t been sufficiently transparent about this incident, I decided to send a public records request to his department. I sent out two copies of the request. One was a physical copy that I sent through traditional mail. The other was an electronic copy that I sent via email.

Under the Massachusetts Public Records Law, anyone can send a request to any state or local government agency in Massachusetts for copies of records kept by that agency. Government agencies are required to respond to these requests within 10 days and must agree to release the records unless they contain certain types of information that are exempt from disclosure. They may charge fees for providing the copies, but there are some limitations on how much they can charge. (Check here for more information about making public records requests in Massachusetts.)

Unfortunately, there are problems with the public records law. As The Boston Globe documented in a 2009 article, government agencies are often able to get away with wrongfully delaying the release of time sensitive information, using loopholes to charge exorbitant amounts of money for records, illegally destroying public records, and even flat out ignoring requests.

Nevertheless, making public records requests is one of the best options people have for getting answers to questions they have about government agencies in Massachusetts.

The request I sent to Chief Brashears asks for copies of any documents related to his investigation of Officer Melendez (my hope is that the file will contain information about how Melendez was disciplined) as well as documents related to the training he said his officers have received.

You can read the request I sent out below (click here for .pdf version):

This is a request under the Massachusetts Public Records Law (M. G. L. Chapter 66, Section 10). As you may be aware, the Public Records Law requires you to provide me with a written response within 10 calendar days. If you cannot comply with my request, you are statutorily required to provide an explanation in writing.

We recently communicated about an incident during which UMass Lowell police officer Noberto Melendez threatened a student for video-recording him. During our correspondence, you were helpful and provided some information to me, however, I feel that there are certain details about this incident that the public should be informed about that you have yet to disclose.

In our previous correspondence, you said that you had investigated Officer Melendez over his conduct. I would like for you to provide me with copies of all documents related to this investigation.

You also said that you had sustained allegations against Officer Melendez and had plans to discipline him “in accordance with University policy and the Teamsters union.” However, you did not say how you planned to discipline him. I would like to know in advance whether or not the file on the investigation contains specific information about what discipline Officer Melendez will be subjected to.

You may be aware that there is an exemption to the public records law for personnel information, however, you should also be aware that this exemption does not apply to documents related to internal investigations by police agencies. The Massachusetts Appeals Court has ruled that “materials in an internal affairs investigation are different in kind from the ordinary evaluations, performance assessments and disciplinary determinations encompassed in the public records exemption for ‘personnel [file] or information'” and are subject to disclosure under the public records law (Worcester Telegram & Gazette Corporation vs. Chief of Police of Worcester & another. (AC 02-P-1632) 58 Mass. App. Ct. 1 (2003)).

In our previous correspondence, you also mentioned that your department has been “retrain[ed]… concerning recent court decisions that allow citizens to film police and victims of crime who are interacting with the police.” I would like copies of any documents related to this training including but not limited to policy memos circulated within the department. I would also like a copy of the department’s written policy on dealing with members of the public who record police officers.

I recognize that you may charge reasonable costs for copies, as well as for personnel time needed to comply with this request. If you expect costs to exceed $10.00, please provide a detailed fee estimate. I would appreciate it if you waived any fees associated with the fulfillment of this request as I believe the release of these documents is in the public interest.

I appreciate you taking time to read over and consider this public records request. I look forward to hearing back from you soon.

Chief Brashears told me in an email that he has forwarded the electronic copy of the request to the department’s attorney. I’ll post an update when I get a response.


Oct 11 2011

“Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you!”

Dr. Q

“Shut that fucking thing off before I slap you!”

Those are the words that UMass Lowell student Brendan Brown heard shortly after he trained his cell phone camera on several campus police officers last Saturday.

Brown told me that he was leaving a friend’s house when he noticed a “big brawl” taking place outside an apartment. When police appeared on the scene to break up the fight, Brown stood a reasonable distance away from the action, took out his cell phone, and began documenting the activity. In less than a minute, the officers turned to face Brown and one asked him, “You all set over there with the camera?”

“Yeah, I’m all set,” Brown responded.

“Yeah, who are you?” the officer asked.

While Brown explained to the police that he was merely observing what was going on, an officer began walking toward him. That’s when the officer threatened to assault Brown.

After being threatened by the officer, Brown decided to comply with his demand “rather than to be possibly beat up and thrown in jail.”

In the case Commonwealth v. Hyde, a musician’s felony wiretapping conviction was upheld by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court after he recorded police during a traffic stop, however, Hyde’s conviction stemmed from the fact that he made a secret audio-recording of police with a hidden tape recorder.

Openly recording police officers — like Brown was doing — is not a crime. As the SJC observed in Hyde, Hyde’s arrest and conviction “could have been avoided if, at the outset of the traffic stop, [he] had simply informed the police of his intention to tape record the encounter, or even held the tape recorder in plain sight. Had he done so, his recording would not have been secret, and so would not have violated” the wiretapping statute.

More recently, a federal appeals court ruled that openly recording police officers in Massachusetts is an activity that is protected by the First Amendment and police officers may be sued for interfering with people who record them.

In fact, it’s legal to audio and video-record police virtually everywhere in the United States. The only major exception is the state of Illinois which currently has an “eavesdropping” law that criminalizes even openly audio-recording one’s own interactions with police officers without their consent. Despite the fact that recording police is generally legal, there have been hundreds of documented cases of police harassing, threatening, assaulting, and even arresting people for recording police activity in recent years.

But just because it’s become all too common for police to interfere (oftentimes violently) with people who record them does not mean that it’s acceptable. The officer who threatened Brown wasn’t simply disrespectful or unprofessional. What he did is a crime and he deserves to face consequences for it.

That officer deserves to lose his job. No person who believes he has the right to threaten to assault other individuals for something that is not only legal, but is protected by the First Amendment, has any business being a police officer. When you commit a serious crime like threatening someone without provocation, you don’t deserve a second chance with the badge.

The officer in the video should also be facing criminal charges. If Brown had approached a police officer and threatened to hit him, you can bet he would have ended up in jail. Police officers who make criminal threats don’t deserve to be treated any differently.

Brown agrees that his rights were violated, but told me that he has no plans to seek accountability from the campus police over the incident because he was unable to identify the officer who threatened him.

“If I had correctly identified the officer who made the threat, I would want him to be held entirely accountable and face whatever repercussions are given for this type of behavior. However since that is not the case, the awareness brought by this video is satisfying enough for people and especially UMass Lowell students to know what is going on and how business is being conducted by these public servants,” he told me.

However, Brown did say that the school’s student trustee, whom he described as a good friend, was aware of the video and was considering discussing it with the UMass Lowell Police Chief.

I decided that before I publish anything about the video, it would be fair to get a comment from the UMass Lowell Police Department so I sent in an email that included a link to the video and some related questions. I quickly received a response from UMass Lowell Police Chief Randolph E. Brashears.

Chief Brashears did not respond to any of my questions, but assured me that his department “take[s] citizen complaints seriously.” Though he did not comment on the department’s policy with respect to recording police activity, he did say that “The students involved have nothing to fear from our agency as I did not see any violations of the law on their part from the short video clip.” He said he will get back to me when he finishes investigating the incident.

I suggest contacting the UMass Lowell Police Department to let them know that the behavior of the officer in the video is unacceptable. You can contact the department on their non-emergency phone line at 978-934-2398. You can email the department at [email protected] or you can email Chief Brashears directly at [email protected]

I will post an update on this case as soon as more information becomes available.

Update (10/17/2011): The Lowell Sun, a Lowell-based newspaper, picked up this story. You can read their coverage here.